Mr Yang Jiang talks about "the technique of translation": choosing the most appropriate word
tengxunjiaoyu· 2016-05-27 06:54:45
< p > [Abstract] famous female writer, literary translator and foreign literature home, Mrs. Qian Zhongshu Yang Jiang in Beijing died at the age of 105. Yang Jiang proficient in English, French, Spanish, translated by her "Tang & middot; Don Quixote" is recognized as the best translation masterpiece, to 2014 issued a total of more than 70 million copies.
5 April 25, the 1:00 am, famous female writer, literary translator and foreign literature home, Mrs. Qian Zhongshu Yang Jiang in Beijing Xiehe Hospital died, at the age of 105. Yang Jiang's proficiency in English (fine), French, Spanish, translated by her "Tang & middot; Don Quixote" is recognized as the best translation masterpiece, to 2014 has issued a total of more than 70 million copies.
Yang Jiang's talking about the translation skills: < in 1986, I wrote the experience of failure -- try to talk about translation" and can't remember in what journals published. The article did not cause any reaction, I think it is not worth a look, intend to cut. Zhong Shu said: This article not ideology, but practical, advised me to keep. This article on the income of my "collection of works". Now read the old man, that I didn't make the meaning clear, the example sentence, also does not indicate the source, so I slightly modified, and changed the subject.
I'm not perfect for my own translation. So I translated works though not many, the failure of the experience is a lot of. From the experience of failure to talk about translation, that is, from experience to explore how to be more perfect. I changed the original title to "translation skills".
let me put aside the theory ---- the theory is only reflected in the experience of the following. Anyway, all the translation theory of the guiding ideology, nothing more than the original text for a text, according to the mode of expression. What the text says, what to say, how to say the original text, the translation also how to say. This is the translator acknowledged. As for how to run through this guiding ideology, but there is no law; only solve specific problems respectively. So the translation can not be separated from examples. But the original different languages, inevitably limited in the common understanding; and instances and bits and pieces, very difficult to organize the system. I try not to use the original text as an example, and try to make the system.
talk about the experience of failure, can not but emphasize the difficulties of translation. At least, this is a hard job, because everything must obey the master, can't. And a servant of two masters, at the same time serving the two masters: one is the original, the two is the translation of the reader. On the one hand, the translator to have a thorough understanding of the original; not only to understand the sentence meaning, must understand sentence encompassed, words outside of the tones. On the other hand, the readers of the target text need to understand the original text from the target text. Translator language readers, the original contents according to the original expression; the contents can't be some additions and deletions, tone of voice nor aliasing. The original only came from the string overtones, meaning; not spit meaning, only attached to the words. The translator can only use the words Kung Fu in the expression, cannot insert their own interpretation or use your argument. The translator must have a thorough understanding of the original, just to be able to fit the original text, according to the pattern still to the reader. However, despite the thorough understanding, may not be able to express. Thorough understanding is not easy, fit the original according to the mold is still more difficult to express.
my experience is limited to the English, French and Spanish in the original Chinese translation. Western grammar and Chinese grammar are not the same. If the European language language from this kind of translation into the a. Don Quixote's so-called "like transcription or copy"; if translated into Chinese is not so forthcoming. Slightly experienced translators will feel western languages and Chinese language clockwise different, Jin Shi Daoan translation of Buddhist Scripture called "Hu language do fall. The western Chinese translated into idiomatic Chinese, have a big somersault before it upside down. I'm still now commonly used "difficulty" and "sweetness", a "trial translation" speech to explain the problem. The same language between the "translation" is not, move a little over on the home, it is worthy of the name "translation". The "translation" between Chinese and Western languages is very large. If the "translation", sentences as somersaults did not turn into and zaidao in, or feet in the air, or general limp feet and turn the legs, not smooth.
somersault just a metaphor. But the somersault is a fast action ---- translation is quick: read the text, think it turned out. To explain how to turn, with the actual language, from slow motion to explain.
"Hu language do down" "inverted" does not mean that the full text of the language upside down. Chinese and western language is also from the beginning of the first sentence, sentence by sentence, one after another, until the end of the sentence, the main difference is in the internal structure of the sentence. Western language sentence, can be very long; many Chinese sentences, often very short. Even if the original is a short sentence, it also cannot die next to the original word order, this is common sense. So translate the original sentence as a unit, one by one to turn.
translation consists of the following steps.
one, in the sentence as a unit, the translation of each sentence
I always next to the translation of the original sentence, but the original sentence, not necessarily a translation of the sentence. The long sentence, clause and clause can contain adjectives, adverbs, etc. According to Chinese grammar, a sentence to hold many clauses and phrases. If must according to the original sentence is a sentence which is not up, the original meaning; so punctuation is inevitable. But if the improper punctuation, or broken into a sentence order or not properly, the meaning of the source language. How to punctuate, how the combination arrangement (i.e.) broke into a sentence, there is no certain rules. However, there are still a way, also have a principle. The
method is to distinguish between the word sentences, clauses, and various phrases; and to identify the various parts of the above affiliation. On this basis, the original sentence into a few sentences, re combination. No matter how tortuous and complicated the original sentence, read, the total share of the qing. Like nine chain, a ring, but can be able to unlock the ring. The
principle is to highlight the main clause, and bring out the relationship between the various parts of the subordinate. I have no fixed position, can be in the front, the back, in the middle, and even cut off. Subordinate clause, the phrase to placed in proper position, make this a group of re combination of punctuation, and read the original text of the sentence is a meaning, is the same argument. In combination these punctuation process and can not be missing, can not add, is like a jigsaw puzzle, the original is a square, can be changed into a rectangle, but re spell cannot reduce a block or add a piece of board.
examples illustrate. I use long complex sentences, for example, because the translation of this kind of sentence, if the continuous sentence, phrasing or improper alignment, caused by do not believe it is not as obvious, easy to illustrate the problem.
this example, including A, B two. Remove the branches and leaves of the adjectives and vice phrases, A sentence is "I ventured out". B with a causal clause: "but my fate, then my mind especially clear (main clause); so I don't want to get revenge on the enemy, and to himself in anger (clause). "< I have three expressions: < (a) most similar to the original dead translation, punctuation in accordance with the original (but each phrase internal die translation, otherwise, the whole sentences and phrases to be unintelligible).
(two) broken into a few sentences, and reversed the order.
(three) for less explicit meaning, sentence order re arrangement.
I put three versions of the parallel, easy to compare. The first (three) kind of translation is not necessarily perfect, but rather than the first (two) of the original text more letter, but also more able to express the original meaning.
A sentence < (a) < I see all the family chaos, I boldly ran out, despite being seen and not I with determination if people see, I would go to a called the whole world know my chest and literal is angry, in the treacherous nents Nan duo punishment, even to that has not yet been revived water woman.
I look at their house a mess, big courage ran out, no matter people see not see. I decided, if to see to the person, is a big fight, punish treacherous hall fee Nanduo, even the unconscious unawakened water woman, let a person know I was pregnant with a literal is angry.
I look at their house a mess, big courage to run out, no matter others see not see. I decided, such as to see to the person, is a big fight and punish the treacherous court costs Nanduo, also not Rao the coma unawakened water woman, let everyone know I am filled with anger is conform to the justice of. < p >
B but my fate, in order to more bad luck, if there may be more bad, quasi retains I, destined to at that time I back unconscious head downtown especially clear. So, I don't want to my two friends Revenge (this, because they never think of me, is easy to do), I must use their hands, they deserve punishment in his body, even than treat them badly, if at that time to kill them, because of the sudden death of pain immediately finished; but prolongs the suffering torture continuously kill to the end of life.
must be kept my destiny to bear more bad thing -- if there will be a bad thing. Don't mind preordained coma back, then more sober. At that time, I had to take revenge on my two friends, it is easy to do, because they do not think I have the heart of this person. But I don't want to do that. I just want to put their own anger, the pain in his body. Even if I kill them on the spot, it's not as hard as I treat myself. Because of sudden pain, all of a sudden, and long-term torture, such as often by the pain of killing can not be the life.
but keep my destiny quasi to bear more bad thing -- if there will be a bad thing. I will not clear the preordained unconscious mind, particularly when awake. I don't want to two of my friends to vent their grievances, just want to punish yourself, put they deserve pain personally imposed on himself, even than to treat them more brutal. I would have done it easily, if I had been to them, because they would never have thought of me. But I even killed them, the sudden death of pain is all of a sudden end, and long-term I spoil yourself, but it is a slow suicide, immediately killed more painful than.
from the above three kinds of translation, can be seen as follows.
original sentence, is paralyzed sentence, not the original study is unreasonable. Complex sentence. Sentences, clauses, and each phrase, as the sentence words, translation can be redone arrangements, can not with the original punctuation.
long broken into sentences, such as improper arrangement for the combination, it is not clear. The (two) a set of sentences, each sentence is read up fluent, but a few words with no loose. A full set of sentences without outstanding original main clause and also showed no subordinate relationship between each sentence, so the meaning of the original sentence is not clear. The
(three) after the reshuffle, the (two) is more faithful to the original meaning, the tone is more smooth. Not what phrase changes, changes in various parts of sentences. The biggest difficulty is not visible in the
period, and in the re combination of these cut short. The translator is always in control of the original text, which is influenced by the original order. The original sentence is more long more twists and turns, the translator of the original sentence and read the sentences into the heart. The order of the original sentence (the order of foreign syntax) is also stagnant in the mind. From the slow motion, is the decomposition of the main clause, clause, all kinds of phrases, re combination, the translator is also affected by the shackles of the original sentence order. This requires a "cooling" process, to get rid of this order. Montesquieu on the translation of the difficulties of Latin, said: "the first master of Latin, and then forget the latin. "Forget the Latin", that's what I say ". After a "cooling", read the translation, it is easy to see the wrong place; compared with the original, will be able to find the problem, to be corrected.
I have seen the translator because he is not stable, afraid to take risks, that the more close to the original from the more secure - that is, the "translation" the smaller the better; even if the translation is not smooth, at least "letter". But can not reach the original meaning of the text, can not say that the letter. "Dead translation", "hard translation" and "literal translation" are all about the performance of "translation". From the examples cited above can be seen, "translation is" more small, that is, in the text of the post and the closer, then the meaning of the expression is from the far. The original intent is not up, that is, do not believe. The letter may not be accessible, my translation will not believe. I believe this is the common sense of translation. Here may wish to mention the translation of the so-called "free translation"". I don't know much about what is called "free translation" ". If the translator in the original meaning in their own words, that is not a translation, is to explain, is the meaning of translation. I think the translator without this freedom. German translation theorist Kaoe P.Cauer so-called "as much as possible faithful, essential for free", is only applicable to a translator on his two masters, not taking into account the. This is not true and free, and had no choice but to go through the steel wire, allowing the use of skills not to fall freely.
above had a jigsaw metaphor that should add a board or a board reduction. This requires a little explanation. It is said: "can not be any additions original, but not his word it word. For example, the original sentence a subject can receive a clause, we must add the subject sentence. The original sentence prepositions, articles, conjunctions and so on, according to Chinese grammar, if do not have, as for. But the translator does not avoidance do not understand their own words, or suffer from said that was not clear, skip translation; not because of the restructuring of the original sentence, some can not find a suitable location, simply Jane off. On the one hand, it is not because of the expression is not clear, insert their own interpretation. Above sentence "I" transliteration for "my people", because the original intention is to "my people", and no additional new "plus a puzzle". This kind of place, the translator must be flexible.
sometimes Chinese sentence sometimes Western text concise and comprehensive, simple and multi meaning. Give a comparative sentence as an example.
original sentence is full of feelings of a dialogue. It is "why don't you go to the faithful friend called? "Clause is" [he is] the sun lights, night concealed friends most loyal friend. "(this sentence is irony," faithful "means not loyal.) I still have three translations. &hellip "…
; why don't you call the most faithful friend in the friend of the sun, or the night covered? … … "
" … … why don't you go and call it the most faithful friend you can see and hide in the night? … … "
" … … why don't you go and call the faithful friend? More loyal than his friend, the sun did not seen, the night did not tolerate too! … … "
" (one) can not be solved. The translation (two) is a kind of Chinese language, which is not a person to speak, and has no comparison with the original text. There are always two meanings, one layer deeper than one layer. The original sentence by comparing Chinese pronouns, not in grammar. Dialogue should not be long. The (three) the sentence breaking into the sentence, and express the meaning of comparison, and no unauthorized "add a puzzle".
to cite a comparative sentence as an example.
original sentence has two layers of meaning. Dulcinea was praised by you for being more happy and more famous. "Two, other people's praise is not as good as your praise. "I'm still tied for three kinds of translations.
Dulcinea in this world will be more happy and more famous because you have been praised by the world's most eloquent person can give her all the praise.
you praise of Dulcinea, overshadowed the others of her praise for her benefit. < p > Dulcinea you praise, will add to the happiness and fame; others how Jikou praise, also arrived but the weight of this a few words you said. The
(a) is the smallest, "translation". The (two) reads as if it lacked what "missing a piece of a jigsaw puzzle". (three) to make up for the shortage. I will give a
long winded, can counter three, otherwise there is no use for. < p > 2, the original sentence clusters into chapter < translation is according to the original sentence next to a sentence translation, chapter seems not a process. Because the original sentence breaking, this group of sentences in the translation process, have sought to coherently, before and after the echo, and came the original sentence tones. But each part of the sentence order has been reversed, the translator s thimble into chapter not to the original text of a sentence, but the original sentence or before or after or in the middle of the part. Therefore clusters into chapter not only to pay attention to re combination of sentences is consistent, still need to pay attention to a and a is consistent, the meaning of each sentence is obvious, and so on. Especially need to pay attention to is the original first sentence in the sentence can not be mixed with the second sentence of the original; the second sentence in the phrases of the source text can not be mixed with the original first sentence. Each sentence of the original text is a unit, and the next sentence is strictly off. Because adjacent sentences if mixes the original tone and meaning will be lost. Read the full text, must control the original. If the texture is not smooth, only in the text of each sentence word is on the inside and compromise. < p > I have seen press for translation barrier along and please do not understand the original repair run translation. As a result, the translation smooth, but with the original do not shoot the. < p > 3, succinct text < to the translated sentences together, even if the sentence is smooth, sometimes inevitably overlap sluggish problems. If the text does not overlap dull, that is "clumsy sake. English grammar and Chinese grammar character are different. For example, English commonly used here, the Chinese do not immediately, but another method is free of pronouns. English grammar, "because", "so" to express the causal relationship. Just put down a Chinese sentence, the causal relationship is very clear. Give a short example. The above statement is "they all go somewhere". I am tied for two kinds of translation.
all of them went to London; I did not go with them, for I was dizzy.
all of them went to London; I was dizzy, I didn't go.
(a) and (two) are the same words. Two things can be explained from this example:
1. reverse the order, cause and effect relationship is obvious.
2. as we have said, do not have to repeat the text below, unless to repeat. < p > as to how to each phrase are placed in the appropriate position and avoid long winded repetition. It all depends on whether the translator's power of expression. So I can only give a short example of another, not long.
Jane fell short of the word, is the Tang Liu Zhiji "Shi Tong", "outside the article," the so-called "point of trouble". Xiyang Wuhu cleaning, you can lose a large number of "waste", the translation was succinct sprightly smooth. This is a very detailed, very arduous process. On the one hand, you have to try to make a sentence concise and appropriate; on the one hand, it must be careful not to delete the word can not be saved. In this process must pay attention to two things. (a) "irritated" got some sentences in reverse. Belong to the part of the original sentence, and belongs to the part of the original sentence, can not be reversed, can not be connected as a sentence, because it is easy to lose the original tone. (two) not because of the pursuit of the agile and ignore the original style. If you remove the word too much, read to feel forced, lose the original ease. If the word can save too much, and will affect the original text. This requires the translator to grasp properly. I have mastered instability, often suddenly get rid of too many words to reprint when they consider fill.
four, the choice of the most appropriate word
translation of the same language, often have the same meaning of the words, the meaning of a word, the so-called "Les Amis" (Faux). A British Prime Minister's wife told a French friend: "my husband has brought a lot of documents to the cabinet meeting. "But her French husband said:" I got a lot of toilet paper to the toilet. "English and French" small room "(cabinet) literally the same and different, is not a reliable friend; and" paper "by the context of the link, have a different interpretation. No such danger between Western and Chinese characters.
but the same language similar to the text, to find the word when the word is relatively easy. Chinese and Western languages of text go very far, and Chinese vocabulary is very rich, if the translator does not hold, those words just strange hiding in the distance, refuses. Not a word, the translator although understanding of the original text meaning and expression original text cannot move to, Gegebutu said. In the English, French and Chinese and Western Chinese Dictionary of Chinese interpretation, of course, can help, but a different context, words are also different, sometimes dictionary word also does not apply. So the translator is required to store a large vocabulary: popular, elegant, reasoning, description, describe the and so on, for he free to use. If the translator is poor in vocabulary, even if they are proficient in the western language, they can not express the meaning of the original text, such as the original.
's choice of words has many special difficulties.
a concept of the name of a lot of meaning, and the general concept of this concept is not clear. As a concept which is very difficult, "Yan Fu tianyanlun" with a so-called "Li, from hesitant". It is set with the original names, often also need to add annotations.
does not equal things word, three Buddhism sutra translation when the so-called "naming him", did not translate. Some translators use transliteration, attach the original text, filling instructions. This is not translated, only add explanation. Some use similar words and note. It is difficult to take into account the pronunciation and meaning of Puns in
. It is always, only by coincidence, but also with some reluctance. Only save more to the head.
specialized terminology, the need to understand the meaning of the door, can not literally, although the translation is not about the professional work of the book and only occasionally mentioned in the novel.
has a special interpretation of the word, can only refer to the notes of the experts.
above all kinds of special difficulties, each has a special solution; the translator is not easy to schedule, and indeed the general text. My vocabulary is poor, the appropriate words often can not think about it, need to change again, only to find more appropriate. The number of cases for
. I still hold three translations. Under the words a bit, is the need to consider the text.
… & hellip; touch his costs touched his soul & hellip;...
… & hellip; use of his capital stabbed heart screaming like pain & hellip; & hellip;
… & hellip; his laurels, his life giver son & hellip; & hellip;.
(a) "hit" money is not money, so do not convey. The
(two) is good, but does not stick to the original statement.
translation (three) than (a), (two) more than the letter also reached.
the following example, and then Quixote look forward to the dwarf in the city to blow the horn and other things. < p > but see [things] was dragged & hellip; & hellip; < but things have dragged unrealized & hellip; & hellip; < but slowly disappear action & hellip; & hellip;
translation (a) is dead translation; translation (2) more expressive; translation (three) than (a) and (II) channel is more than. One person, one night in the wild,
… & hellip; four Xiali silence, inviting me bitternesses of angry & hellip; & hellip;
… & hellip; four Xiali silence, I could not help but sad from sigh
… & hellip;
… & hellip; four Xiali silence, as if waiting for a listen to me complain < (a) is dead translation, the meaning is very obvious, just blunt usage; translation (II) didn't the full expression of "invite" the meaning; translation is faithful also convey the meaning. From the above examples, we can see that a very common word as long as the use of appropriate, it can be more fit to express the original meaning. This kind of word, it seems to use this line, with the line, but to use the appropriate, often very cost.
the translator to do for their readers to make comments, the original editor's notes useful to the translator, the reader is not necessarily the same reading. Different times, different regions have different customs and habits, the translator needs for the sake of their readers, as they do note. For example. "
" in the small laizigou small laizigou claiming to be "thinking on the river small laizigou torme". He said only because he is in torme's Mill on the river born thinking, so he can justifiably is thomae Si River lazarillo de Tormes. "River" "on" the character, the original is "en", can translate "River" or "River", "the river", not be translated as "the river." But how can a man be born in the river or in the river? Except on a ship. Here's a note. Once Spain's mill use hydraulic grinder, mill floating on the water in the stream (see "Don Quixote" the second chapter 29), the mill floating on the water. < p > I translated "gill brass.", doctors strive for a day, I have as do the note and read exactly a small ancient medical books. I have to know that they have reason to use appropriate language. < p >, such as text, brother, sister, uncle, uncle, aunt, niece, nephew, name, unlike our country each respectively, and the translation time invariant vague, which do not have to pour with annotations, but also time-consuming inquiries resolution. Readers often fail to see the translator's efforts in these areas. However, it has taken the time to add the common sense and the translator's unexpected harvest.
now I on some superficial experience.
some Chinese commonly used four words such as "sunny" and "perfect" etc.. This kind of word for cooked, how many some fixed, used when you have to be careful. Because of the translation of Western words, often only half of the application, the other half of the change is not appropriate, the business is not appropriate. For example, I have used the "sunny day", and the only air, no wind, so instead of "good weather". Another example of our common language is "perfect", and the text is "straight yizheng". I used the four words and too blunt, to justice and justice. "
is associated with the translation of idioms. Chinese and Western idioms if only half sentence similarity, of course, not embezzle; even are exactly the same in meaning, different ways of expression shouldn't embezzle. Because idioms with local flavor. Maintain a different view, you can keep the exotic. For example:
will defeat the Spanish idiom, the bad luck.
eat to control, especially in the dinner should eat less.
disaster if single, even lucky.
the door is closed, and the door is open again.
is not a superman, not a superior person. Chinese idioms
Man proposes, God disposes.
dinner eat less mouth, live to ninety-nine. [
] Disasters pile up on one another. Felicity never turns out in pairs.
days without the way of the people.
eat bitter bitter, party for the people.
difference is big and small, but the two countries are not exactly the same idiom.
I only translated "Quixote" in the poem. All the laws and versions that I have seen have translated the original poem into a faithful prose. The translation of the English version into the free verse twelve lines of the original poem is often translated into ten lines. French and Spanish are more similar. So I noticed languages of the same text, often spelled the tail, and no rhyme. Chinese and Western culture and is not the same, and is rich in synonyms, a lot of rhyme choices. If the poem does not compromise the word rhyme, faithful to the original text and rhyme, than the same language text translation but easily. But the translation not in rhyme. Thanks to the inclusion of "Quixote" in the poem, mostly just so-called "rhyme". I have to translate the poems of Shelley Shakespeare. Line each describe word, every metaphor contained, hints, and cause the thoughts and feelings of the infinite complex to use corresponding adjectives or metaphor to express without missing, really find it difficult. It is good, after the loss of translation. And all the poems in a text and rhyme, but it is not difficult.
I have heard translators said: "through several foreign languages, is very helpful for translation. "This is really good, but there is a range of help; beyond the scope, anti disturbance. If the understanding of the original text is not enough, the translation of other languages can be understood. But in translation, the original fusion in mind, clarify the stage, such as interventional another text translation, with the addition of impurities and muddy. From the slow motion at the appointed time, the text into phrases. Again a combination of stage, adding another text translation, disrupting the orderly and because of the words of western languages although similar, grammar whether there are some differences in the. Would rather concentrate on the original text. Don't bother with other kinds of translations. The translation is completed, then the text translation can be revised by don't. If it is found that there is a difference in meaning, the tone of the light and heavy, it can be weighed.
in the end I want to talk about "letter, up, Ya", "Ya" word. I thought but also the letter translation also reached, "Ya" is the external decoration. Recently I was "Quixote" Fourth Edition Revised Version, found a lot of problems, some from some defect, resign under awake. Every time I find a more appropriate word or more appropriate expression, I feel that the translation is more and better. "Good" is the so-called "Ya"? (no "Ya" is also available, but the word "Ya" is also readily available.) Gustave Flaubert's pursuit of "the most appropriate self" (MOT juste Le). With the most appropriate word, the article on ya. Translation is indeed the pursuit of such a standard: not only to the letter can be reached, but also the "letter" was appropriate, "up to" the right ---- called "Ya" can also be. I can't achieve this goal, but I believe that all the people who are engaged in the translation of literature realize that there is such a goal.
this article summarizes the experience of my translation. The translation of defective sentences, are my own.