of the integrated circuit industry characteristics is the winner, giants such as Intel, the peak period of the profit can be as high as 60%.
so, the relative should be hundreds of hundreds of thousands of dollars of CPU, its actual cost in the end is how much it?
| chip hardware costs constitute the
chip costs including the cost of the chip's hardware and the design cost of the chip.
chip hardware cost including wafer cost + mask film cost + test cost and packaging cost four parts < / strong > (like arm camp IC design companies to pay to the arm design research and development costs, as well as royalties on every piece of chip, but here the author mainly described from the main CPU and Intel giants such, will buy the cost eliminates the need for IP), but also remove the test package waste. < formula expressed as:
chip hardware cost = (wafer cost + test cost and packaging cost + mask film cost) / finished product rate
do a simple explanation of the name, convenient common people to understand and knowledgeable can skip.
from silicon dioxide to the market for the sale of the chip, to go through the preparation of industrial silicon, the preparation of silicon, and then cutting and polishing the wafer. Wafer is the raw material for the manufacture of the chip, chip cost can be understood as the cost of materials used in each chip (silicon wafer) . Under normal circumstances, in particular, the output is large enough, but also with independent intellectual property rights, to 100 million units of production to calculate the case, the highest proportion of wafer cost. But there are exceptions, in the next package to introduce a wonderful example of the cost.
package is the substrate, the core, the heat sink stacked together, they formed a daily meeting of the CPU, the package is the cost of the process of the funds needed. < / strong > in the general case to yield huge, about package cost usually accounts for the hardware cost of 5% - 25% of the, but IBM some chip package cost accounted for about half the total cost, is said to the highest has reached 70%..
test can identify every single processor of some of the key properties of UN, such as the highest frequency, power, calorific, and processor level, such as a pile of chips categorized as: i5 4460, i5 4590, i5 4690, i5 4690K etc. after the Intel can according to different grades, open a different price. However, if the chip production is large enough, the cost of testing can be ignored.
mask cost of membrane is the use of different process cost < / strong >, like 40/28nm of the process is mature, low cost -- 40nm low-power process mask film cost is $200 million, 28nm SOI technology for 400 million dollars; 28nm HKMG into the $600 million.
(lithography mask film exposure) < p > however, at the beginning of the advanced process technology available, the cost is quite expensive, in 2014, just appear 14nm process, the cover film cost $300 million (with the passage of time and the Taiwan TSMC and Samsung master 14/16nm process. Now the price should not be so expensive), and Intel is developing a 10 nm range. According to the official Intel estimate, the cost of the mask to cover the cost of at least $1 billion. But if chip to 100 million units production (looks like Apple's annual phone + tablet shipment volume billion), even mask film cost up to $10 billion allocated to each piece of chip on, its cost ten bucks. And this reflected from the other hand out why like apple such giant using TSMC and Samsung most advanced and the most expensive process, still can make a lot of money, which is why IC design has characteristics of winner take all. < like foundries to lithography, etching, ion injection, metal deposition, metal layer, interconnection, wafer testing and cutting, encapsulate the core, grade test steps need to cost, and lithography, etching machine, reducing thin machine, dicing machine, die bonder, wire bonding machine, flip machine manufacturing equipment depreciation costs are in test cost, packaging cost, cover the cost of film, there is no need to separately calculated. Cost <
| wafer due to the wafer processing, cut into wafers, can not guarantee 100% utilization rate, so there is a finished product rate, so the cost of the wafer with the formula said:
wafer wafer cost = cost / (number of chips per wafer * manufactured chip rate)
< P class =" content img P ">a gold chip, the actual cost of what is? The
wafer is circular, and the wafer is rectangular, will inevitably lead to some scrap will be wasted, so each can be cut out of the wafer chip number is not simple with the wafer area divided by the area of the chip, but to use the following formula:
each wafer wafer (number = wafer area / area wafer) - (wafer / perimeter (2* chip area) root number)
wafer yield and process complexity, the number of defects per unit area is closely related to the wafer yield expression for the company:
wafer yield (1+B* = wafer cost /A (-A times) the party is
A) the process complexity, such as the complexity of a low power consumption by 40nm technology for autonomous CPU-X 2~3;
B is the number of defects per unit area, 40nm process using independent CPU-X The defect value of the unit area is between 0.4~0.6. < p > hypothesis about 15.8mm independent CPU-X long, wide about to 12.8 mm. (length to width ratio for 37:30 and control a quad core chip, length and width ratio in the proportion is not easy) area of about 200 square mm (for the convenience of computation, the fraction removed). A 12 inch wafer has a 70000 square millimeters, and a wafer can put 299 independent CPU-X and wafer yield formula, a=3, b=0.5 into calculated and manufactured chip rate was 49%. That is to say, a 12 inch wafer can produce 146 good chip, and a piece of 12 inch wafer price is $4000, apportioned to each piece of wafer, the cost is $28.
| chip hardware cost of computing the < packaging and testing cost has no specific formula, just test the price of roughly and quadratic of the pin number is proportional to, package cost roughly and pin by the power of the proportional.. If CPU-X uses 40nm low power technology independent chip, the test cost of about $2, the package cost of about $6. Class= img_box "
a chip of the actual cost is how much? Package in the form of
(chip, these two images are more ancient the) < because of the low power technology of 40nm mask film cost $200 million, if reach 10 million sales of the independent CPU-X, mask film cost $20 will test cost = $and package cost = $and wafer cost 28 $substituted into the formula, is the cost of hardware chip hardware cost = 20+2+6 $/0.49+28=85
independent CPU-X for $85.
if independent CPU-Y using 28nm SOI technology, the chip area estimation is 140 square mm can be cut out of 495 CPU. Due to 28nm and 40nm process like, all belong to a very mature technology, with minimal impact on cost cutting, so wafer price can still to 40 million dollars, manufactured chip rate similarly to 49% to calculate, a 12 inch wafer can be cut out of 242 chips, the cost of each piece of wafer for $16.
if the independent CPU-X production is 100 thousand, the mask cost of $40, according to the package test about 20% of the total cost of the chip, wafer yield of 49% to calculate, the hardware cost of the chip is $122.
if the chip production is 1 million, the cost of the mask is $4, according to the total cost of packaging and testing accounted for about 20% of the total cost of the chip, the final yield of 49% is calculated, the hardware cost of the chip is $30.
if the chip production is 10 million, the cost of the mask is $0.4, according to the total cost of packaging and testing accounted for about 20% of the total cost of the chip, the final yield was 49%, the hardware cost of the chip $21. < p > it is obvious that in the same production, the use of more advanced process will increase the hardware cost of the chip, but as long as the yield is large enough, the already high cost can be by a great number of equally, the cost of the chip can greatly reduced.
| chip pricing
hardware costs are relatively well defined, but the design costs are more complex. this includes the engineer's wages, EDA and other development tools, equipment costs, equipment costs, etc....... In addition, there are a large is IP cost < / strong > -- if it is independent of the CPU to OK (an independent micro structure can be done without the third party IP), if arm camp IC design company and need to a lot of outsourcing IP, the IP is expensive, it is not very good at home and abroad in various IC design company in the design cost of specific uniform quantization. < according to the international general low profit chip design company's pricing strategy 8:20 pricing is hardware cost for 8 cases, the pricing for 20, independent CPU-X in production for 10 million pieces sold for $212. Don't think this is a high price, in fact, has been very low, Intel general pricing strategy for 8:35, AMD history has reached 8:50...... < p > in the output of 10 million under, independent CPU-Y also uses 8:20 pricing, the price is $305. < p > in the production of 100 million under, independent CPU-Y also uses 8:20 pricing, the price is $75. < p > in the output of 10 million under, independent CPU-Y also uses 8:20 pricing, the price is $52.5.
can be seen, to reduce the cost / price of CPU, the yield is very important, and this is Intel, apple can use relatively and expensive process technology, but also to grab the key to excess profits.
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