Rifling: precision firearms "artisan" soul
qingbingqiaihaozhe· 2016-11-17 23:44:07
| from precision gun rifling "artisan" soul
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~ can be said to be the soul of the rifle barrel, the role is to give the rifle's ability to rotate the warhead so, in the chamber after the warhead, can still maintain the established direction. Although in fifteenth Century with rifle records, but due to manufacturing difficulties, until nineteenth Century to popularize." profile display
rifle barrel rifling aka "rifle (Rifling) using a" Slot Broaching "(drill bit)", "Broach Rifling is a proper noun (rifle drill and rifle broach)", a variety of styles and specifications, also need a kind of special machine "Machine Rifling (rifling pull machine, rifling machine)".polygonal rifling smooth". ENFIELD" rifling, features are at right angles to the development process of
rifle barrel lower part of the concave convex part is called Yin, called the candle. In general, the caliber of firearms should be double line to line never distance, but the exception has been too much, not a principle. Such as.38 and.357 are the same caliber, just a line to line volume is the distance of a quantity is to line the line distance.
of course, the nose length is different, but the light in diameter is the same. The number of rifling, without a standard, from the Springfield Armory of 1903A3 2 to Marlin Groove called Micro 22." line in the depth of the modern barrel, mostly in the 0.004 to 0.006 inch. But the line and line shape is a public just said, both sides just said. The
rifle with a long history, fifteenth Century has appeared, but it was not until nineteenth Century that the large-scale national military equipment. This is the case, the decisive reason is the front loaded gun loading speed is too slow.
because the projectile must be embedded with the rifling to the rifling, so the projectile diameter must be greater than the diameter of the rifle line, makes the front loading rifled gun loading very easily, often need to send soldiers with a hammer percussion stick can be put into play the projectile gun. The firing speed is reduced to 1/3 muskets or even slower.
such a low rate of fire, is intolerable for the military. So in two hundred years after the invention of the rifle, rifle in the army only a supporting role, until the French Orlean hunting Corps captain Claude · Adel · (Claude; Etienne Minié migne) in the middle of the nineteenth Century invention of migne. Mineda's caliber rifle than before the line diameter to a small circle, solve the difficult problem of reloading. There is a small hole in the bottom of the conical projectile
migne bomb. At launch, the powder gas make the projectile tail expansion, embedded with rifling, high-speed rotating muzzle rifling. Because the diameter of projectile barrel diameter less than migne, make filling easier, front loading rifled gun firing rate is greatly improved. After solving the loading problem, the front loaded gun barrel is rapidly popularized in the whole world.
Rasmussen of Denmark and Britain's Metford (William E. Metford), the round line is to reduce the residue of the Type 99 rifle barrel, Japan is the use of this line. Mannlicher is Austria's arsenal, this line the narrow width, it is said that the warhead easier rotation, so that the muzzle velocity will be relatively high and far can. Also often hear a Ballard long range rifle rifling, it is a famous black powder era, this rifle with wide shallow line, and modern Marlin Micro Groove. The
rifle rotation degree, called twist pitch. If you want more long distance to complete a rotation of 360 degrees, is called slow. A short called fast. For example a complete circle than the 9 "complete the circle of slow in 12 inch. The twist pitch of the main difference lies in whether can the warhead is stable, unstable warhead in addition to rotation along the target line, will tumble, produce the phenomenon on the target Keyhole." the length of the gun barrel for firing, has a great influence. In a certain range, the longer the better, this is a very early human found the truth. This is why in the first World War. The use of the rifle barrel up to 30 inches or more, because the tactical idea is want rifles and far. But after a certain length, it can benefit, just increase the weight, and inconvenient to use. So was the standard infantry weapon barrel length, are reduced to 20 inches to.
24 inches between the people started to use synthetic materials such as carbon fiber, coated steel pipe, because the warhead still in high speed and high pressure situation through the barrel, because This is the most ideal internal to every kind of steel, but the external use of synthetic material can increase heat dissipation, reduce the weight of the barrel, the barrel is still very scarce and expensive, and the diameter is far greater than the ordinary barrel. I believe the future development should be in this direction, the inside and outside the physical properties of different materials, through processing and synthesis of.
barrel rifled cannon requires not only hard, compressive strength and high temperature. Another essential characteristic is toughness, that is said the barrel should have certain elasticity. Otherwise it's too hard The metal will cause too brittle. Some of the early production of M1903A1, namely the barrel there is such a problem, if sustained fire, caused by blow up the barrel results. Brazil gun factory Taurus (Taurus),
in 1998, launched a series of titanium (Titanium) as the material of the revolver, known as light and durable, but it is almost impossible to rust, the barrel part, you need to use titanium steel, because although hard, but still can not meet the requirements of.
5.56mm < / twist calculation Example:
degree = arctan (Pi* diameter / pitch) diameter and pitch are in inches as the unit
to wrap around 1:7, the twist is 5.72 degrees. The best
twist pitch decision: a formula of 1920s that can decide the best around distance, called Greenhill (Alfred G. Greenhill, 1847-1927 formula), 2800fps to 1500fps in muzzle velocity:
=150* (bullet twist pitch diameter) * (bullet diameter) / (bullet length) to
147 inch grain, 1.125 military bullets warhead for example:
12.649=150* (.308) 2 /1.125, therefore, the best distance should be wrapped around
in muzzle velocity is higher than that of 2800fps between 1:12 to 1:13:
=180* (bullet twist pitch diameter) * (bullet diameter) /
(bullet length) (all metric inches)
this method determines the twist pitch and warhead matching, can get the most stable shooting results.
calculation of rifling angle, using the following formula: arctan = (Pi* diameter / degree twist pitch (diameter) and twist pitch are
4.37=arctan inches) (3.1415*0.308/12.649)
rifle production method, is the first after the barrel drill holes, the modern main has three kinds:
Broach Cut Rifling: latche style rifle. For many times, the drill pulling the barrel, gradually to the depth of the female groove rifling. 1950s, pioneered by Remington's engineers. The production of most high-quality barrel. The
Button Rifling: button to produce rifle. With a high pressure shape and opposite button rifling through the barrel shaped object, internal and rifling.
Cut Rifling: produced using a single cutting type rifle. Hook knife, slowly, a double track system, is the earliest production mode. Now only the most sophisticated, the most advanced production barrel in this way.
rifle gun fingerprint (i.e. different guns, bullets are rifling through different mark, just as the fingerprint):
rifle is to let the bullets can rotate in the gun body engraved traces, the bullet through rifling when bullets are carved on the lateral traces is called the rifling mark. Alias · fingerprint gun. Once used, the smuggled items will be put on record by the police, after which it will be important to make the gun crime. The
rifle is made of processing special tools, such as brooches, but even with the same effect, brooches, workers and equipment manufacturing even the same product with a manufacturer may not be completely as like as two peas rifling. That is to say the same mark made rifled gun is not possible.
is now popular with cold forging method (cold Hamming) gun rifling is made, so the method of stamping forming and manufacturing the brooch look rifling compared each are very similar. Therefore, the characteristics of the tight rifling mark difficult making method of
" modern manufacturing methods are so few rifle - cutting method, die head pull method, cold forging method
method with a blade diameter slightly than the pistol threading steel rod, dig a groove in a certain part of it, install a hard alloy steel a piece, one or two protruding on a steel sheet with a certain dip angle belt The front end is favorable to the cutting part, and can adjust the height of the protrusion.
is in a position to pull up the rifling dozens of times, cut out a pair of Yin rifling, and then adjust the position of a cut off. This method cut the odd or even the rifle generally used single scraper, even cut rifling can use bi-directional scraper. Can also be installed in the relative position of single blade, double blade or three pairs of knives, a cut from 2 to 6." made the barrel is a fine living, the light is on in a steel rod easier said than done with a straight hole, and it must take into account all aspects of the drill feed angle, workpiece rotation speed, oil pressure, even the chuck of steel bar must ensure concentric steel rod and bit. To drill a 24 inch pipe quality, technical content is not here than to build 40 storey building is poor. At present, the world powers have not even overcome this technology.
folding hook knife broaching method
hook shaped cutter placement in steel rod bore diameter ratio slightly thin, hook blade height can be adjusted by19" century old cutting machine
manual wooden wooden broaching broaching machine screw rod layer to adjust. Each pull through a barrel, rod moves a few microns, with a uniform rotation, broaching a certain degree of winding groove rifling, reaches a predetermined width, then change to pull second position rifle. The early
rifle to pull a rifle as long as the Yin broaching about twenty times, and a good gun broaching groove rifling also have to cut one hundred times. The more the number of pull, the formation of the pull slot, the more sophisticated, more sophisticated.
the early American colonists had adopted the manufacture of rifling hook knife broaching method, which uses the manual mechanical wood tool is very simple, the colonists themselves will be able to manufacture.
folding combined annular cutter broaching method
" (or top cone punch squeeze JE
rifle) method with a the middle section of line shape and bore section shape of the same hard alloy (such as tungsten carbide) no pointed cone shape, the light cone diameter than the barrel bore smaller, metal barrel in strong top cone pressure through the bore, the bore diameter increased slightly, tip protruding through the bore surface the inner wall of formation deformation, namely Yin rifling, recess along the chamber and through the formation of shadow close to the internal deformation of Mao Yang rifling.
and because of the high pressure of the chamber wall surface of the metal density increased, the hardness increased. At the same time, ream defects and rifling back two steps. Because the surface of cone bore inner wall through the hard and smooth and smooth. The barrel life doubled. This method was first invented by the Germans, after the 70s result has been widely used in barrel production."
precision forging method in precision forging processing barrel is currently the world's military power is widely used in the field of light weapons. The 216 factory in 1970s in the first use of the technology of precision forging forming a gun bore line, after thirty years of accumulated technology, now has a precision of rich experience, can engage in large, medium and small caliber gun and small caliber gun rifled forging processing." gun tube forging is accomplished by precision forging machine. Precision forging machine is a kind of radial forging machine is in the blank around the symmetrical distribution of several hammer on the blank along the radial direction of high frequency synchronous forging blank, rotate the axial feeding and radial section of the blank size and axial extension. Billet in the axial feeding and hammer according to the procedure to go forward or backward, the blank shape is flat or has a certain taper. To say it is a simple forging a rifled mandrel in a pipe, hit with a special hammer in the outside of the pipe, although the yield is high speed. But it's just a product.
any hammer over tens of thousands of metal will produce internal stress, think of a so much stress disorder of the barrel, what will happen in the shooting fibrillation! Domestic 88 sniper gun tube is also so hammer out of the standard spread is 100 meters 19CM. Even in the formal way are better than it. "The
rifle type, gun rifling is divided into three types (isometric rifling accelerando rifling and rifle)
refers to the isometric rifle rifle with twist angle of twist (twist pitch) changes, rifling angle is consistent from beginning to end, if the barrel spread into a plane, isometric rifling the offset is a straight line, commonly used in anti tank gun and rifle gun fire on
is to gain twist rifling angle of twist twist pitch with the change of the rifling rifling, the benefits can be reduced in the barrel wear root (which is wrapped angle is 0), the angle of twist of rifling one way is increased with the increase of the twist pitch, which is more close to the muzzle at the angle of twist is bigger, if this kind of this gun, rifle is a rifle used in curve, gradually short body The howitzer, after increasing twist rifled projectile do is the acceleration of the rotation of the" pipe rifling processing
refers to the rifling angle of twist twist pitch with the change of rifling, not in the gun tube root near the chamber where twining angle, and with the increase of twist pitch angle of twist will also increase, but with increasing twist rifled is different, the rifle twining angle increases to a certain extent will not change, if the gun launched this rifle will be part of the bend, mostly straight, commonly used in the mixed rifle gun howitzer gun barrel on longer." made in Pakistan gun barrel rifle (
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